Angola /ænˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola pronounced: [ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ]; Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa, and is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to west. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with theRepublic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The capital and largest city is Luanda, which is home to 2.8 million of Angola's 24.3 million people.
Although its territory has been inhabited since the Paleolithic Era, modern Angola has its roots in Portuguese colonization, which began with mostly coastal settlements and trading posts established in the 16th century. In the 19th century, settlers slowly and hesitantly began to establish themselves in the interior. Angola as a Portuguese colony encompassing the present territory was not established until the early 20th century, after resistance by a number of groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. Independence was achieved in 1975, after a protracted liberation war. That same year, Angola descended into an intense civil war, that lasted until 2002.
Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy has on average grown at a double-digit pace since the 1990s, especially following the end of the civil war. In spite of this, standards of living remain low for the majority of the population, and life expectancy and infant mortality rates in Angola are among the worst in the world. Angola is considered to be economically disparate, with the majority of the nation's wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population.
Angola is a member state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union and the Southern African Development Community.
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