The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa abbreviated as KPK (Pashto: خیبر پښتونخوا [pəxtunˈxwɑ]; [ˈpəxˈtuːnxwaː]), formerly known as the North-West Frontier Province, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in thenorthwestern region of the country. Its provincial capital and largest city is Peshawar, followed by Mardan. It shares borders with the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the west; Gilgit–Baltistan to the northeast; Azad Kashmir, Islamabad and Punjab to the east and southeast. Balochistan lies to the southeast. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa also shares a national border with the Afghanistan, connected through the famous Khyber Pass.
It is also the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, the ruins of its capital, Pushkalavati, (modern day Charsadda), and the most prominent center of learning in the Peshawar Valley, Takht-i-Bahi. It has been under the suzerainty of the Persians, Greeks, Mauryans, Kushans, Shahis, Ghaznavids, Mughals, Sikhs, and British Empire throughout its long history. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy though it is geographically small. It comprises 10.5% of Pakistan's economy, and is home to 11.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtuns,Hazarewal, Chitrali, and Kohistani.
It is noted as a climatically a diverse province with very cold winter and mild summer. Rocky mountain ranges, lush forests, and high altitude tundras all located within its boundaries. Since the 9/11 attacks in the United States in 2001, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is a major theatre of militancy and terrorism which intensified when the Taliban began an unsuccessful attempt to seize the control of the province in 2004. With the launch of Zarb-e-Azb against the Taliban insurgency, the casualty and crime rates in the country as a whole dropped by 40.0% as compared to 2011–13, with even greater drops noted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, despite the province being the site of a large massacre of schoolchildren by terrorists in December 2014.
All sources from Wikipedia.