Punjab (Urdu: پنجاب, Shahmukhī Punjabi: پنجاب, panj-āb, "five waters": listen (help·info)), also spelled Panjab, is the most populous province of Pakistan with approximately 56% of the country's total population, it has an area of 79,284 square miles (205,345 square km) and a population of exceeding 82 million. It is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the northeast and Punjab and Rajasthan to the east. In Pakistan it is borderd by Sindh to the south, Balochistān and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and Islamabad and Azad Kashmir to the north. 
It makes a bulk of the territory that forms the fertile Punjab region, which also includes the Indian states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. The region was divided during the Partition of India, with Muslim majority areas becoming part of Pakistan and non-Muslim majority areas became part of India. The province came under Muslim rule in 712 CE, and subsequently came under various other Muslim rulers until the victorious entry of the Mughal Empire in 1526. The province's significance increased during the reign of Shah Jahan when Lahore became a seat for royal family, hence attributed by its rich display of Mughal architecture.
Punjab’s area mostly consists of an alluvial plain formed by the southward-flowing Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej rivers. In the northern parts of the province are theMurree and Rawalpindi and the Pabbi hills, part of the Sub-Himalayas, and in the far north is the Pothohar Plateau. Agriculture is the chief source of income and employment in Punjab with wheat and cotton being the principal crops. Since independence, Punjab has become the seat of political and economic power; it remains the most industrialized province of Pakistan. It counts for 39.2% of large scale manufacturing and 70% of small scale manufacturing in the country. Its capital Lahore is a major regional cultural, historical, and economic center.
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